Judo has several kata, mostly created in the late 19th century by Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo. The judo Kata involve two participants. Judo Kata preserves a number of techniques that are not permitted in competition or in randori, including punches, kicks, and the use of the katana and other weapons. The study of Kata is usually begun typically at around the green belt level, but is not required for grading until the black belt and then new Kata for each degree of black belt after that. There are also Local, National and International Kata competitions offered as well. The most commonly studied judo Kata is Nage-no-kata, which consists of fifteen throwing techniques. The Katame-no-kata is composed of pinning techniques, chokes, and joint locks. Kime-no-kata is a long kata consisting of self-defense techniques against both unarmed attacks, and attacks with swords and knives.
Goshin jutsu no kata is a relatively modern kata, having been created in 1956. It consists of 21 techniques against an unarmed as well as armed attacker. It is divided into 2 unarmed sets and 3 sets with weapons. The first 7 techniques are against an attack close in. The next five are against attacks from strikes and kicks. Then there are three attacks with a knife, three with a stick and three with a gun. While the actions are controlled, so that the attacker is not hurt, the defender’s actions can easily be modified to disable the attacker. It is important to realize that all of the techniques in this kata are consistent with the principle of “jiu”, the principle of gentleness or yielding.
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